Category Archives: Published Articles

Brahmi Inscriptions from Kondane Caves

The aim of the paper is to analyze the Brahmi inscriptions engraved at Kondane caves. All the previous research works have recorded and studied only one donation that was made by Balaka, a disciple of Kanha. Apart from this inscription, three more inscriptions have been noted. In our quest to search them we could locate only one in situ that has been photo documented and analyzed.

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King Jhanjha and the Legend of Shiva Temples: An Epigraphical Analysis

The Shilaharas of North Kokana originated as a feudal clan of the Rashtrakutas probably during the reign of King Govinda III (Shaka year 715–736). Jhanjha was the fifth known ruler of the house of Shilaharas of North Kokana. It has been popularly accepted by the historians that King Jhanjha constructed twelve temples of Shiva. This paper attempts to study the inscriptions of the Shilaharas for searching more evidences on King Jhanjha and the Legend of Shiva Temples.

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Rupali Mokashi_king Jhanjha


Contribution of Narayan Jagannath Vaidya towards Reforms in the Education System of Sindh and the Legacy of Narayan Jagannath Vaidya (NJV) High School of Karachi

This paper aims to explore the efforts made by Narayan Jagannath Vaidya, first Deputy Educational Inspector of Sindh then a part of the Bombay Presidency. The paper aims to analyze his contribution towards reforming the Sindhi script and thereby laying foundation of school education in Sindh. The paper further explores the educational reforms that were introduced in the Mysore province. These reforms were based on the suggestion of Narayan Jagannath Vaidya, who had used it earlier in Sindh. Lastly the paper aims at the establishment and development of the Narayan Jagannath Vaidya (NJV) High School of Karachi, its educational contribution, heritage value and historical significance.

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The Chalukyas of south Konkan as gleaned through the inscriptions

The quest to search for the Chalukyas of South Konkan began when I noticed three photographs of copper plates labeled as ‘the Donation of the Shilaharas’ in the book ‘असे घडले ठाणे’ by Daud Dalvi. He has not provided any details and provenance of these copper plates in his book. It intrigued me more as the date visible on one of the plate was shaka era 1182. Apparently it was not possible as this was the year when Shilahara King Someshvara issued the Chanje Rock Edict (shaka era 1182) and sometimes after this date the Shilaharas of North Konkan were annihilated by the Yadava king Mahadeva. Chanje Rock Edict is the last known inscription of this dynasty. There is no news or publication of any Rock Edict of the Shilaharas beyond this date so far. The Panhale Copper Plate issued by King Mallikarjuna dated shaka era 1073 is the last known Copper Plate edict of this dynasty. As such the copper plates labeled by Daud Dalvi as “Donation of the Shilaharas” necessitated critical investigation.

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Rupali Mokashi

Emergence & Evolution of Cāndrasēnīya Kāyastha Prabhū as a Caste: An Epigraphical Assertion

The word ‘caste’ is derived from the Latin word ‘castus’. However, such simple explanation is insufficient to understand the complexity involved in the growth and evolution of the caste system on a pan Indian level. Indian Caste system is an elaborate and complex social system which has evolved over centuries. It combines a synthesis of elements of endogamy, occupation, social class and tribal affiliation.

In the present paper the emergence and evolution of the ‘Cāndrasēnīya Kāyastha Prabhū’ caste will be examined with the help of the epigraphical sources. All the three words that constitute the name of the caste will be evaluated separately.

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Rupali Mokashi

Gaddhegal Stones: An Analysis of Imprecations and Engraved Illustrations

Gaddhegal or the Ass Curse Stele is rock edict that has peculiar auspicious features like sun, moon and kalasha. The auspicious symbols ensure perpetuity of the grant and bestow prosperity upon the grantee. It also depicts an image of donkey and women in an act of sexual congress. The ass curse imagery engraved on these rock edicts suggests a warning to the transgressor of the grant. The inscriptions if any, engraved on them register land grants.While working on the dissertation ‘Rekindling the History of Shilaharas of North Kokan as Gleaned through the Recent Epigraphical Revelations’ under the Justice K T Telang Fellowship of the Asiatic Society of Mumbai, my attention was drawn towards this unique stones. Large number of Gaddhegal stones has been studied for the important epigraphical data engraved on them. However Ass Curse as engraved illustrations and the imprecations as text necessitated more attention and analysis. This paper will attempt to analyze the imprecations and the engraved illustrations of the ass curses with the help of thirty six new gaddhegal stones discovered from Maharashtra. An attempt is also made to understand the variations in the verses and illustrations as well as document various oral traditions that have survived in spite of the fact that the original meaning and context passed in oblivion.

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The Interlude of Jaitugi: Evaluation of the Sandor Inscription

The Interlude of Jaitugi: Evaluation of the Sandor Inscription

This paper draws attention to an important rock edict that needed reevaluation to reconstruct the history of the Shilaharas of North Konkan. The Sandor Inscription of Jaitugi was read and discussed previously by many historians. However I have brought to light the discrepancies in its reading and analysis including the date. Various other inscriptions have been reexamined to reach upon the conclusion that Jaitugi was a ruler belonging to the dynasty of the Shilaharas of North Konkan and not the usurper, feudatory or a governor as suggested previously.

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Property Rights of Hindu Women in the Context of Ownership, Transfer and Transmission of Property : An Epigraphical Analysis

Property Rights of Hindu Women in the Context of Ownership, Transfer and Transmission of Property : An Epigraphical Analysis:

Research Deliberation- An International Journal for Humanities and Social Science, May 2015, ISSN-2395-7778


Inscriptions are valuable source to reconstruct ourpast. They help to understand the actual conditions that prevailed in the Hindu society that were strictly guided by the laws coded in various scriptures. Inscriptions have preserved valuable data about women that is well stacked in the milieu of time and space. Mostly votive, administrative and eulogistic in nature they hold diverse information not only on the society and polity but also on the economic rights enjoyed by women. The inscriptions were always a realm of the epigraphists. They were never adequately sifted by
the historians in their quest for reconstruction of history of Indian women. Our understanding of the position of women in the Hindu society is mainly based on the textual sources. Property rights of Hindu women as revealed by inscriptions in the context of ownership, transfer and transmission of property are objectively analyzed in this paper. Exhaustive inscriptional data has served as the authentic means to validate its historical perspective.

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property rights

Panvel Copper Plate of Śilāhāra King Chittarāja (Śakē 947)

The facsimile of only one copper plate was published in a very brief article in the Itihāsa Patrikā titled ‘Panvel Plates of Chittarāja (Śaka year 947)’ by Dr. Ravindra Ramdas. These copper plates were handed over to him by Pandit Gajanan Shastri Joshi of Panvel on 16th October 1983. Dr. Ramdas revealed in a conversation that there were three plates, loose without the seal strung around and much effaced. He however selected only this plate to be photographed as it contained most relevant information, according to him. He is silent about any other details such as their physical dimensions, script and language used and other customary details. Unfortunately neither the original copper plates nor any photo images are traceable anymore except the present photocopied image.

A brief note of these plates was taken by Shri. Shashikant Dhopate in his article published in ‘Kalakaustubh’ I have deciphered the only available facsimile and analyzed its contents.

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Finding space for Upasikas in the annals of ancient Indian Buddhism: Inscriptional evidence of the lay female devotees

The Four fold Sangha envisaged by the Buddha consisted of upasikas or female lay worshipers as one of its vital constituent. Textually the term upasika means ‘one who sits close by.’ A large number of donative inscriptions recorded by the laywomen in ancient India show that the cause of propagation of dhamma was upheld not only by queens, princesses and nuns but by ordinary women too.

This paper will explore the patronage by the lay women for the propagation of Buddhism and for the construction of various Buddhist sites across India.

Conference Proceedings, National Seminar on women’s Issues, Department of Economics, R T Talreja College of Arts, Science & Commerce, Ulhasnagar, 20th March 2015, ISBN-978-93-83342-6

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